Women’s rights are human rights !


 We are all entitled to human rights.  These include the right to live free from violence and discrimination;  to enjoy the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health;  to be educated;  to own property;  to vote;  and to earn an equal wage.

 But across the globe many women and girls still face discrimination on the basis of sex and gender.  Gender inequality underpins many problems which disproportionately affect women and girls, such as domestic and sexual violence, lower pay, lack of access to education, and inadequate healthcare.

 For many years women’s rights movements have fought hard to address this inequality, campaigning to change laws or taking to the streets to demand their rights are respected.  And new movements have flourished in the digital age, such as the #MeToo campaign which highlights the prevalence of gender-based violence and sexual harassment.

 Through research, advocacy and campaigning, Amnesty International pressures the people in power to respect women’s rights.

 On this page we look at the history of women’s rights, what women’s rights actually are, and what Amnesty is doing.


What do we mean when we talk about women’s rights? What are we fighting for? Here are just some examples of the rights which activists throughout the centuries and today have been fighting for:

Women’s Suffrage

During the 19th and early 20th centuries people began to agitate for the right of women to vote. In 1893 New Zealand became the first country to give women the right to vote on a national level. This movement grew to spread all around the world, and thanks to the efforts of everyone involved in this struggle, today women’s suffrage is a right under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1979).

However, despite these developments there are still many places around the world where it is very difficult for women to exercise this right.  Take Syria for example, where women have been effectively cut off from political engagement, including the ongoing peace process.

In Pakistan, although voting is a constitutional right, in some areas women have been effectively prohibited from voting due to powerful figures in their communities using patriarchal local customs to bar them from going to the polls.

And in Afghanistan, authorities recently decided to introduce mandatory photo screening at polling stations, making voting problematic for women in conservative areas, where most women cover their faces in public.

Amnesty International campaigns for all women to be able to effectively participate in the political process.

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

Everyone should be able to make decisions about their own body.

Every woman and girl has sexual and reproductive rights . This means they are entitled to equal access to health services like contraception and safe abortions, to choose if, when, and who they marry, and to decide if they want to have children and if so how many, when and with who.

Women should be able to live without fear of gender-based violence, including rape and other sexual violence, female genital mutilation (FGM), forced marriage, forced pregnancy, forced abortion, or forced sterilization.

But there’s a long way to go until all women can enjoy these rights.

For example, many women and girls around the world are still unable to access safe and legal abortions. In several countries, people who want or need to end pregnancies are often forced to make an impossible choice: put their lives at risk or go to jail.

In Argentina, Amnesty International has campaigned alongside grassroots human rights defenders to change the country’s strict abortion laws. There have been some major steps forward, but women and girls are still being harmed by laws which mean they cannot make choices about their own bodies.

We have also campaigned successfully in Ireland and Northern Ireland, where abortion was recently decriminalised after many decades of lobbying by Amnesty and other rights groups.

In Poland along with more than 200 human and women’s rights organisations from across the globe, Amnesty has co-signed a joint statement protesting the ‘Stop Abortion’ bill.

South Korea has recently seen major advances in sexual and reproductive rights after many years of campaigning by Amnesty and other groups, culminating in a ruling by South Korea’s Constitutional Court that orders the government to decriminalize abortion in the country and reform the country’s highly restrictive abortion laws by the end of 2020.

In Burkina Faso, Amnesty International has supported women and girls in their fight against forced marriage, which affects a huge number of girls especially in rural areas.

And in Sierra Leone, Amnesty International has been working with local communities as part of our Human Rights Education Programme, which focuses on a number of human rights issues, including female genital mutilation.

In Zimbabwe, we found that women and girls were left vulnerable to unwanted pregnancies and a higher risk of HIV infection because of widespread confusion around sexual consent and access to sexual health services. This meant that girls would face discrimination, the risk of child marriage, economic hardship and barriers to education.

In Jordan Amnesty International has urged authorities to stop colluding with an abusive male “guardianship” system which controls women’s lives and limits their personal freedoms, including detaining women accused of leaving home without permission or having sex outside marriage and subjecting them to humiliating “virginity tests”.

Freedom of Movement

Freedom of movement is the right to move around freely as we please – not just within the country we live in, but also to visit others. But many women face real challenges when it comes to this. They may not be allowed to have their own passports, or they might have to seek permission from a male guardian in order to travel.

For example, recently in Saudi Arabia there has been a successful campaign to allow women to drive, which had previously been banned for many decades. But despite this landmark gain, the authorities continue to persecute and detain many women’s rights activists, simply for peacefully advocating for their rights.


When looking at women’s rights it’s helpful to have an understanding of feminism. At its core, feminism is the belief that women are entitled to political, economic, and social equality. Feminism is committed to ensuring women can fully enjoy their rights on an equal footing with men.

Intersectional Feminism

Intersectional feminism is the idea that all of the reasons someone might be discriminated against, including race, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, economic class, and disability, among others, overlap and intersect with each other. One way of understanding this would be to look at how this might apply in a real world setting, such as Dominica, where our research has shown that women sex workers, who are often people of colour, or transgender, or both, suffer torture and persecution by the police.


Gender Inequality

Gender inequality could include:

Gender-Based Violence

Gender-based violence is when violent acts are committed against women and LGBTI people on the basis of their orientation, gender identity, or sex characteristics. Gender based violence happens to women and girls in disproportionate numbers.

Women and girls in conflict are especially at risk from violence, and throughout history sexual violence has been used as a weapon of war. For example, we have documented how many women who fled attacks from Boko Haram in Nigeria have been  subjected to sexual violence and rape by the Nigerian military.

Globally, on average 30% of all women who have been in a relationship have experienced physical and/or sexual violence committed against them by their partner. Women are more likely to be victims of sexual assault including rape, and are more likely to be the victims of so-called “honour crimes”.

Violence against women is a major human rights violation. It is the responsibility of a state to protect women from gender-based violence –  even domestic abuse behind closed doors.

Sexual Violence and Harassment

Sexual harassment means any unwelcome sexual behaviour. This could be physical conduct and advances, demanding or requesting sexual favours or using inappropriate sexual language.

Sexual violence is when someone is physically sexually assaulted. Although men and boys can also be victims of sexual violence, it is women and girls who are overwhelmingly affected.

Workplace Discrimination

Often, women are the subject of gender based discrimination in the workplace. One way of illustrating this is to look at the gender pay gap. Equal pay for the same work is a human right, but time and again women are denied access to a fair and equal wage. Recent figures show that women currently earn roughly 77% of what men earn for the same work. This leads to a lifetime of financial disparity for women, prevents them from fully exercising independence, and means an increased risk of poverty in later life.

Discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity  

In many countries around the world, women are denied their rights on the basis of sexual orientation, gender identity, or sex characteristics. Lesbian, bisexual, trans and intersex women and gender non-confirming people face violence, exclusion, harassment, and discrimination Many are also subjected to extreme violence, including sexual violence or so called “corrective rape” and “honour killings.” 


The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (1979) is a key international treaty addressing gender-based discrimination and providing specific protections for women’s rights.

The convention sets out an international bill of rights for women and girls, and defines what obligations states have make sure women can enjoy those rights.

Over 180 states have ratified the convention.


Women’s Rights are Human Rights

It might seem like an obvious point, but we cannot have a free and equal society until everyone is free and equal. Until women enjoy the the same rights as men, this inequality is everyone’s problem.

Protecting women’s rights makes the world a better place

According to the UN, “gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls is not just a goal in itself, but a key to sustainable development, economic growth, and peace and security”. Research has shown this to be the case – society gets better for everyone when women’s rights are upheld and taken seriously.

We’re stronger when we work together

Although grassroots movements have done so much to effect change, when everyone comes together to support women’s rights we can be so much stronger. By working alongside individual activists and campaigners on the ground as well as running our own targeted campaigns, movements such as Amnesty International can form a formidable vanguard in the fight for women’s rights.


نگرانی آژانس زنان سازمان ملل از نقض حقوق زنان و دختران افغان پس از حاکمیت امارت اسلامی 

در گزارش تازه این آژانس زیر عنوان هشدار جنسیتی، آمده است که با وجود تضمین‌های مکرر امارت اسلامی مبنی بر رعایت حقوق زنان افغان، شواهد گسترده‌ای بدست آمده است که آن‌ها در سراسر این کشور با محدودیت‌‌های جدی مواجه هستند.
فعالین حقوق زن نیز در این زمینه ابراز نگرانی داشته، میگویند که پس از روی کار امدن امارت اسلامی در کشور زنان و دختران از حقوق اولیه شان باز مانده اند. 
انان میگویند که دختران نیز برابر مردان در جامعه حق داشته و نباید با انان تعبیض جنسیتی صورت بگیرد. درهمین حال مسوولان امارت اسلامی میگویند که حقوق زنان بیشتر از هر زمان دیگری محفوظ بوده و انان برای دست یابی بیشتر زنان به حقوق شان برنامه های را روی دست دارند. 
بیش از سه ماه از حاکمیت امارت اسلامی برکشور میگذرد اما، هنوزهم زنان و دختران افغان در سردرگمی به سر میبرند. این بانوان میگویند که اینده زنان نامعلوم بوده و هرروز محدویت ها بالای زنان بیشتر میشود.
آنان می افزایند که امارت اسلامی از زمان حاکمیتشان تا کنون هیچ کارکردی در قبال احقاق حقوق زنان نداشته اند.
فعالین حقوق زن در این زمینه می افزایند که یکی از عواملی که زنان مجبور به ترک وطن شده اند محدودیت های وضع و نقض حقوق زنان میباشد. 
مریم معروف آروین ریس موسسه تحکیم رفاه زنان و اطفال افغانستان میگوید که : زنان افغانستان نسبت به ۲۰ سال گذشته در بدترین وضعیت  زیستی شان قرار دارند و پس از تسلط طالبان به افغانستان حقوق زنان در سطوح متفاوت محدود، مقید و نقض گردیده است ، زنان افغانستان هنوز هم از ابتدایی و اساسی ترین حقوق شان که آموزش است محروم اند و این فاجعه بار برای زنان و آینده سواد در افغانستان میتواند باشد 
بانو آروین تاکید میکند که زنان افغانستان انتظار دارند که دید و تفکر طالبان نسبت به زنان و حقوق شان ، نسبت به سال ۱۳۷۵ باید تغیر ژرف مثبت نماید . 
مسوولان امارت اسلامی در این مورد میگویند که زنان در کشور بیش از هر زمانی امنیت داشته و حقوق انان حفظ گردیده است.
آنان می افزایند برای کار و تحصیل زنان برنامه های را روی دست دارند تا زنان و دختران بتوانند در فضای مناسب و مسعون به تحصیل خود ادامه بدهند.
این در حالی است که چندی پیش امارت اسلامی دستور عملی را جهت حقوق زن در شش ماده صادرکرد، که در ان تنها به حقوق خانوادگی زنان پرداخته شده بود و درمورد حق کارو تحصیل زنان نشانه ی نشده بود که پس ازنشر، این دستورعمل با واکنش های شدیدی از سوی فعالین مدنی و فعالین حقوق زن روبه روشد.
گزارشگر : سکینه نظری


حاکمیت طالبان، آینده مبهم زنان و سکوت سنگین جامعه بین المللی 

انسان‌های متمدن امروزی در تمام کره خاکی به نقش کلیدی و سرنوشت ساز زنان باور داشته و آنها را منحیث محرک جامعه بشری مورد اکرام و عزت قرار می‌دهند.
زنان در عصر حاضر، بدون توجه بر جنسیت شان در تمام سطوح رهبری و تصمیم‌گیری حضور فعال داشته و نقش شان در اختراعات، انکشافات و دستاورد های علمی بشر انکار ناپذیر است.
اما آنچه در بالا تذکر یافت با واقعیت‌های جامعه افغانی هموانی نداشته و زنان افغانستان برعکس هم‌جنسان شان در سایر کشور ها، با چالش‌ها منحصر به فردی مواجه اند.
در افغانستان فرهنگ مرد سالارانه بشدت حاکم است و بخش بزرگ از مردان افغان‌ متاثر از باور های دینی و فرهنگی حاکم در کشور شان،‌ اجازه تعلیم و تحصیل، کار و تصمیم‌گیری را برای زنان نمی‌دهند.
بخشی مردان افغان با توجه بر ایمان شان به ناقص العقل بودن زنان، حتا اجازه تصمیم‌گیری به زنان را در مورد زندگی آینده شان نداده و در اکثریت موارد زنان بدون خواست و اراده شان به شوهر داده می‌شوند؛ همچنان‌که فرهنگ بد دادن در تمام کشور خصوصا در مناطق جنوبی و شرقی کشور حاکم است. 
با آن‌هم زنان افغانستان، با وجود همه چالش ها، همیشه برای بدست آوردن حقوق و آزادی های انسانی شان مبازره نمودند. که پیشینه نهضت تجدد خواهی زنان افغانستان به بیش از یک قرن بر می‌گردد.
زنان افغان از یک قرن پیش، در برابر فرهنگ ناپسند و مرد سالارانه جامعه شان ایستاده و دستاورد های چشم‌گیری داشتند.
چنانکه نمی‌شود نقش زنان افغان را در عرصه های تعلیم و تربیه، سیاست، اقتصاد و حتا نظامی نادیده گرفت زیرا هیچ کشوری نمی‌تواند با انکار از نقش سازنده زنان در تمام ابعاد زندگی بشری به توسعه و  ترقی دست یابد.
اما بیست سال گذشته را می‌توان تاریخ زرین و انقلاب بزرگی در عرصه تساوی حقوق زنان و مردان افغانستان دانست، چون قانون اساسی سال ۱۳۸۲ بعد از پنج سال تجرید و محرومیت زنان از تحصیل و کار در حاکمیت طالبان، حق تحصیل و کار زنان را به رسمیت شناخته و با بیان اینکه “همه اتباع افغانستان از حقوق و وجایب یکسان برخوردار اند” زمینه قانونی حضور زنان را در تمام سطوح مساعد ساخت.
با توجه بر حضور معنی‌دار زنان از سیاست تا اقتصاد در ۲۰ سال گذشته، دولتمردان افغان با حمایت جامعه جهانی سهم ۲۵ درصدی زنان را در حکومت‌داری پذیرفتند و زنان در حکومت پیشین با احراز کرسی‌های مختلف حکومتی به ویژه کرسی‌های وکالت در پارلمان، وزارت و معینیت‌ها، زمینه‌سازی فرصت‌های تشبثات خورد و بزرگ، ترغیب به سهیم شدن آن‌ها در اجتماع، حضور فعال آن‌ها در رسانه‌ها، ایجاد و تمویل نهادها و سازمان‌های ویژه زنان حضور معنی‌داری در جامعه داشتند.
بر اساس آمار های منتشر شده، قبل از سقوط جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان و تسلط مجدد طالبان بر کشور، اضافه تر از ۳۰۰ هزار زنان شاغل در نهادهای حکومتی و خصوصی مصروف کار، ارائه خدمات و دفاع از کشور بودند.
بر علاوه آمار ذکر شده، قبل از ۱۵ آگست و سقوط جمهوریت، ۱۰۰۰ زن در بخش‌های مختلف رسانه‌های داخلی و خارجی حضور داشتند. همچنان که بیش از ۲۷۰۰۰ زن در بخش های نظامی مصروف دفاع از وطن و تامین امنیت مردم شان بودند.
ولی با تسلط طالبان در کشور تمام دستاورد های زنان افغانستان که نتیجه سال‌ها تلاش و مبازره بودند؛ نقش بر آب گردید.
در حال حاضر بیشتر از ۱۰۰ روز می‌گردد که زنان افغان از حق کار و تحصیل محروم اند و هزاران زن تحصیل‌ کرده به دلیل از دست دادن منابع درآمد شان و فروپاشی اقتصادی کشور در وضعیت نهایت اسفباری زندگی می‌نمایند.
اما با وجود محدودیت های وضع شده از سوی طالبان، واقعیت انکارناپذیر اینست که در فاصله دور اول حاکمیت طالبان در سال ۱۳۷۵ و دو دوم حاکمیت شان در سال ۱۴۰۰ جامعه افغانستان متحول گردیده و طالبان جزء تجدید نظر در باور های خویش و پذیرش واقعیت های کنون کشور چاره دیگری ندارند.
ولی در بعد بین المللی مسولیت اخلاقی جامعه جهانی، سازمان ملل متحد، نهاد های حقوق بشری، نهاد های مدافع حقوق زنان و نهاد های خیریه بین المللی است تا در راستای دستیابی مجدد زنان افغانستان به حقوق و آزادی های قانونی شان، کنار این قشر آسیب پذیر، در جامعه مرد سالارانه افغانستان ایستاده شده و با حمایت معنوی و مادی دوشادوش آن‌ها بار سنگین این مبارزه عدالت خواهانه را بر دوش بکشند.



Taliban rule, the ambiguous future of women and the heavy silence of the international community

  Today’s civilized people all over the globe believe in the key and decisive role of women and they believe in the role of the lady and the fate of women and they are the role of the author.
  Women in the present age, regardless of their gender, in all levels of leadership and decision-making, active presence and role in all levels of leadership and decision-making, active presence and more direct role.
  But what has been mentioned above is not in line with the realities of Afghan society, and women in Afghanistan do not have the same gender as the Afghan people, and women in Afghanistan do not have the same gender.
  It is very prevalent in a patriarchal culture, and many Afghan men, influenced by the religious and cultural beliefs of their country, do not allow women to study, work or make decisions.
  Some Afghan men, because of their belief in women being irrational, were not even allowed to make decisions in their future lives, and in most cases women are given to their husbands against their will;  Also, the culture of bad giving prevails in all specific countries in the southern and eastern regions of the country.
  1 that the history of the Afghan women’s modernization movement goes back more than a century.
  Afghan women have had a remarkable view of society for a century now, in the face of the unsavory culture of men.
  As the role of Afghan women in the fields of education, politics, economics and even can not be ignored, because no country can deny the constructive role of women in all human life to develop and prosper.
  But the last twenty years can be considered a golden history and a great revolution in the field of equal rights for men and women in Afghanistan, because the 2003 constitution, after five years of exclusion and deprivation of women from education and work under the Taliban, gave women the right to education and work.  Recognizes.  Clearly stating that “all Afghan citizens should have the same rights and duties” is the legal basis for the presence of a woman.
  Given the significant presence of women from politics to economics over the past 20 years, Afghan government officials, with the support of the international community, have accepted 25 percent of women in government.  Creating opportunities for small and large enterprises, encouraging their participation in society, their active presence in the media, creating and financing institutions and organizations for women, a meaningful presence in society.
  According to published statistics, before the fall of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and the re-establishment of the Taliban in the country, 300,000 women working in public and private institutions were engaged in providing services and defending the country.
  For most of the above statistics, before August 6 and the fall of the republic, 1,000 women were present in various sections of the domestic and Sarkarji media.  In addition, more than 2,700 people in the military sector were engaged in defending the homeland and ensuring their security.
  But with the domination of the Taliban in the country, all the women of Afghanistan, the result of which is propagated.  The role was on the water.
  For more than 100 days now, Afghan women have been denied the right to work and study, and thousands of educated women are living in extreme misery due to the loss of their income sources and the country’s economic collapse.
  But despite the existing borders of the Taliban, it is undeniable that between the first round of Taliban rule in 1996 and the second two years of their rule in 1400, Afghan society has changed and some of them exist in their beliefs and acceptance.  The country has no other choice.
  But after international women, the international community’s moral responsibility lies with the United Nations, human rights organizations, women’s rights organizations, and international charities to help Afghanistan regain its legal rights and freedoms.  Acceptance is in the male-dominated society of Afghanistan, Afghanistan, and by supporting spirituality and materialism, give them an Armenian wind, and by supporting them spiritually and materially, give them a strong wind with rattan.